Malocclusion is a misalignment of the teeth and/or an incorrect relationship between the rows of teeth in the upper and lower jaw. This can lead to various problems with the masticatory system and facial aesthetics, often affecting oral health.
The causes of bad bites are varied. They can be genetic, e.g. B. through inherited jaw or tooth sizes. Other factors include early loss of baby teeth, poor oral habits (such as thumb sucking), trauma, or certain diseases that affect jaw growth.
There are different types of malocclusions. The most common are the overbite (the upper front teeth are too far above the lower ones), the underbite or frontal crossbite (the lower teeth are in front of the upper ones) and the lateral crossbite (the upper teeth are positioned laterally within the lower teeth).
Symptoms and consequences:
In addition to the visible irregularity of tooth position, malocclusion can lead to difficulty chewing, speech problems, increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease, headaches and temporomandibular joint pain.
To diagnose misalignment, orthodontists and oral surgeons thoroughly examine the mouth and teeth, supplemented by x-rays and digital scans to assess the precise alignment of the teeth and jaw.
The treatment of simple malocclusions is usually orthodontic. These include fixed braces, removable appliances or aligners (clear splints). In more severe cases with associated functional problems or for adults, oral surgery may be required to correct the position of the jawbones.
Treatment of misalignments aims to improve the function of the masticatory system and respiratory tract, reduce the risk of oral diseases and optimise the aesthetic appearance. Early detection and treatment are critical to achieve the best results and ensure long-term health and function.